Flat earth geometry compared to actual San Jose CA 400 meter running track

How a flat earth 400 m running track would layout over actual San Jose CA Lynbrook High track

Here are two 400 meter track traces laid out over the Lynbrook High School track in San Jose, CA, one according to spherical earth surface geometry, and the other according to flat circular disk earth geometry, which is shifted slightly to the west (i.e. left) to make it easier to distinguish between the two for comparison purposes.

It is worth pointing out that there are two ways to compare spherical to flat geometry that should be distinguished to avoid confusion. Two blog posts ago where I first introduced walking a track and taking GPS data where I did this at Prospect High School, I showed how the actual GPS trace coincided accurately with the real map of the track and I will further note here that 5.58 km/12 = 465 m/lap is reasonably close to what would be expected for the 8th lane based on a quick web search for that information which gave 454 m/lap. And if you keep the trace the same but instead calculate how far that trace would have gone on a flat earth interpretation, you get almost 10% higher 6.01 km/12 = 501 m/lap. So to emphasize, this is keeping the trace the same and calculating the higher distance you would get with the flat earth geometry interpretation.

Instead in what I am illustrating in this blog post I am figuring out what the trace would need to be according to flat earth geometry in order to give the same distance as the actual track (spherical earth interpretation which is 400 m for lane 1). This is the reason why in this case, the flat earth trace shows up as smaller compared to the actual trace. So here we keep the distance travelled the same and get different traces for flat versus spherical, whereas in the previous case cited of 2 blog posts back of Prospect High School, the traces are kept the same so you then get different distances for flat versus spherical.

The Excel file with these traces is documented here.

SimSphFltLynbrookTrackLapVis      Excel file

SimSphFltLynbrookTrackLapVis      Excel file

This illustrates how the distortion between flat and spherical geometry although not nearly as extreme as that shown in the previous blog post for Santiago Chile, is nevertheless significant and obvious to the eye here at the northern latitude of San Jose, CA.

How 3 flat earth 400 m running tracks would layout over actual Santiago Chile Escuela PDI track

These are actual traces of what properly proportioned 400 m tracks laid out in Santiago Chile according to flat earth circular disk geometry would look like compared to an actual existing properly proportioned track there at Escuela PDI.

Three flat earth geometry tracings of properly proportioned 400 meter tracks overlaying actual 400 meter track in Santiago Chile, one tracing with long dimension running north south and two with long dimension running east west. The flat earth trace with the long dimension running north south exhibits the proportion similar to that of a cigar, whereas the two flat earth traces with long dimensions running east west exhibit the proportions of a pill box.

The Excel file with these traces is documented here.

ChileLeftRightShaftV2Vis      Excel file

ChileLeftRightShaftV2Vis      Excel file

This graphically illustrates the gross distortions in dimensions that occur in the southern lands when comparing imaginary flat earth geometry to real spherical earth geometry.

Running Tracks Worldwide Affirm Spherical Earth

Spherical Earth Affirming One Running Track At A Time



In my previous blog post I mentioned looking at shorter trips and even walking routes that might give ample evidence to clearly affirm the spherical earth and debunk the flat earth.

And as I have tried a few different things, I have come upon a concept that will truly bring spherical earth affirming and flat earth debunking to the masses all over the world.

It turns out that no matter where you go throughout the world, wherever there is civilization, there are sports fields and running tracks, the tracks being nominally 400 meters around for one lap. It is true that there have been some different standards throughout the years, so tracks of differing dimensions will certainly be found. But anyone could easily measure for themselves the dimensions of their track for further verification if desired.

So no matter where most people live, they are most likely going to be able to find a nearby school with a track where they can go and do some walking (or running) around the track and do experiments with their GPS’s.

I have already done three different tracks at schools close to where I live. I will share the details of the one I just did yesterday.


I walked 12 laps in 1 hour 8 minutes 43 seconds. I stayed in the outermost lane the whole time, which in this case happened to be lane 8. I noted exactly where I started and after each lap would pause at that point for a few seconds just to mark that in the GPS data trace. As before, I used the tracking feature in GPS Essentials on my smartphone.

Once you finish the walk, you stop the tracking and then export the KML file. I then go to the website GPSVisualizer.com where I can upload the file and manipulate it in various ways, as I have explained in detail in previous posts. If you wish you can immediately have GPSVisualizer display the trace on a google map. I also convert it to a text file so I can import it into Excel where I do other calculations of my own, which again I have covered in detail in previous posts.

The beauty of using these running tracks is that they are pretty much standard throughout the world and wherever they are you can find them on google maps and verify that the traces of these tracks in terms of latitude and longitude make sense according to spherical earth surface geometry, but show major inconsistencies when trying to explain them according to flat earth circular disk surface geometry.

The inconsistencies become greater and greater the further south you go, so that in South America or Australia the inconsistencies are truly gross. Do you suppose that there may be some Olympic records that need to be adjusted according to flat earth theory? This is truly an important question to ponder. This is not unlike in an earlier blog post where I pointed out that the around the world flight non-stop without refueling was much more impressive and a greater world record according to flat earth theory.

So for my trip around the track 12 times I travelled 5.58 km at an average speed of 4.88 km/hr and these checked out with my own independent calculations in the Excel spreadsheet. For the flat earth surface geometry, the Excel spreadsheet showed that I travelled 6.01 km at an average speed of 5.25 km/hr in flat earth fiction land. The Excel spreadsheet also showed that the fictitious flat speed increased in a regular pulsating manner throughout the walk according to the regular changes in heading that going around a regular shaped track naturally produces.

As before I am sharing all my files through my Scribd account. You would at least need to register for a free Scribd account to be able to download the files, I believe.

20171210182010-38065-data      text file

text file

558488ProspectTrack8thLane      Excel file

Data in Excel file

558488ProspectTrack8thLaneSphFlt     Excel file

Spherical & Flat cases processed in one Excel file

I have also set up a special email address where anybody can email me GPS data files that they might like me to process for them. I have no idea how many might send me such files, so I cannot make any promises about processing all of them. Certainly those with some written explanation of what is included would rate higher in priority to process.



We simply cannot let the flat earth advocates continue to use their ruse of claiming they have no flat earth map to continue evading the clear deviations from reality of their theory. The problem is that different aspects of their theory together lead to conflicting conclusions. I covered this in a satirical manner in my earlier blog post on Tri-Location on the Flat Earth.

So let me just state the simplest part of their theory that should clearly establish a correspondence between coordinates on the spherical earth map versus their claimed flat earth map. Since they show the Sun completing a cycle in 1 day or 24 hours, the Sun would have to traverse 360 degrees of longitude in 24 hours. This would be the same whether you have a spherical earth or a flat circular disk shaped earth. So if you know the longitude of a city on the spherical earth its longitude should be exactly the same on the flat earth map. Similar arguments can be made that latitude should also be equivalent if the equator and tropics of Capricorn and Cancer are interpreted equivalently between spherical and flat models, as surely they must be or the flat earth theory makes absolutely no sense at all.

So if you were to go to a southern hemisphere place in Chile or Australia and layout a running track according to flat earth geometry of latitude and longitude its shape will be grossly different than the actual running track laid out according to real measurements and also in precise agreement with spherical earth surface geometry of latitude and longitude. I plan to show this graphically in a future post.


GPS + Odometer + Speedometer + Cruise Control = Spherical Earth Affirmed (San Jose to Berkeley)



I recently got a very helpful suggestion from a person in Santiago, Chile, that expressing my work in metric units would be helpful to the international community, so this motivated me to travel metrically on a trip yesterday, as much as I was able, and to report the experimental results metrically as well.

In a nutshell, you track a car trip with your GPS and use cruise control to maintain intervals of constant speed as much as you can during the trip, noting the constant speeds you maintained as well as where on the trip you were able to do so. Once you get the GPS data you can analyze it and show that a spherical earth surface geometry interpretation of the data accurately gives the regions of constant speed and the overall trip distance in agreement with the car’s odometer and speedometer. On the other hand when you interpret the data according to flat circular disk geometry the intervals of constant speed do not show up as constant at all and the overall trip distance is much in error from the distance measured by the car’s odometer. I can already hear flat earth advocates saying something like the GPS data comes out right because it is based on spherical geometry, and indeed I agree that it is so based, but the car’s odometer and speedometer are independent of what theory of the earth’s surface you hold. The car should give accurate speeds and distances traveled whether you are on a flat earth or a spherical earth, or any other shape for that matter. The fact that the GPS data agrees with the independent data from the car’s odometer and speedometer is strong evidence that the spherical earth model is correct. The fact that the GPS data when interpreted according to flat circular disk geometry disagrees profoundly with the independent data from the car’s odometer and speedometer is strong evidence that the flat earth model is incorrect. I challenge all flat earth advocates and researchers to find a way to interpret the trip GPS data so as to show that it conforms to flat earth theory and also agrees with the independent data of the car’s odometer and speedometer.

The beauty of this experiment is that whenever someone does it they are going to get unique results that cannot possibly be predicted or planned for in advance. Where and at what speeds you are able to hold steady speeds with cruise control will vary with the road and traffic conditions. The path of the trip used will also impact the results in a unique way.

This type of experiment can easily be performed for a vast variety of trips all over the world and the data easily analyzed. I am going to share exactly how this can be done by showing how I did it for a trip from San Jose to Berkeley CA yesterday. All details are presented and the Excel files are made available to anyone through my Scribd account so they can see how it was done and use the spreadsheets to process the data from their own trips as well.


I used the GPS in my smartphone, a Samsung Galaxy S4. I used the App GPS Essentials, where at the start of your trip you start tracking, and when you arrive at your destination you stop tracking. The trip file can then be exported as a KML file. From there you can process the data in various ways. I like to use the website GPSVisualizer.com for some things and Excel spreadsheet for many other things.

Car speedometer and odometer

It was easy to push a button to get my speedometer to read in km/h instead of mph, so that way I could easily see what my speed was in km/h during the trip. I was not sure how or if I could get the odometer to read in km, so I took the readings in miles and converted to km.

Trip from San Jose to Berkeley

91.1 km (56.6 miles) by odometer

Duration by my watch 1:10

Duration Start to Stop GPS 1:09:28

90.6 km 78.3 km/h ave speed 131 km/h top speed reported directly by GPS

From my smartphone I exported the trip KML file via email to my PC. The KML filename was Track-171126-105544. I then went to the website GPSVisualizer.com, where I uploaded the KML file and choose output format plain text table. I then clicked the link to download this text file back to my PC. I accepted the default filename 20171126171339-38065-data. I then opened the Excel spreadsheet application. My version happens to be from 2010. From within the Excel application, find the text file and open it. Either select to look at All Files or just Text Files to make sure you can see the correct text file to open. Once you open it, the Text Import Wizard comes up. The default settings are fine, so just click on Next, Next, and then Finish. At this point I like to do a Save As on the file, and save it as an Excel Workbook file, and give it a name that is more meaningful to me. So I gave it the name 906783SanJoseToBerkeley. I got the 906 from 90.6 km for the trip and 783 from 78.3 ave speed for the trip in km/h and added SanJoseToBerkeley to further help me identify this data. I will use this name with additional things added to it as more files are produced based on processing this data. I do not intend to make any further modifications to the Excel Workbook file 906783SanJoseToBerkeley so this can be kept as a record of this stage of the data processing procedure that could easily be returned to as needed. So then I will again do a Save As to the file and give it the name 906783SanJoseToBerkeleySph. This will be the file where some modifications will be made so it will do calculations according to spherical earth geometry. One other change I like to make at this point is to rename the data tab. So go to the lower left and right click on the data tab, that currently has the really long name that came from the GPSVisualizer when it created the text file from the KML file, and select rename. I like to rename it 906783-data. Once you do this be sure to save the file again. And then do another Save As and save it with the name 906783SanJoseToBerkeleyFlt. This will be the file where some modifications will be made so it will do calculations according to flat circular disk shaped earth geometry.

So let’s start by working on the 906783SanJoseToBerkeleyFlt file. If you have followed the directions exactly as above that file should already be open. If not, open it now. Also open the Excel file FltGeomMetricUnitsTemplate. This is the file where we are going to copy the section with the equations for calculation and paste them into file 906783SanJoseToBerkeleyFlt.

In the 906783SanJoseToBerkeleyFlt file select across from Column E to Column J, so that Columns E, F, G, H, I, and J are all selected. Be sure to select across the column headings so that the entire columns will end up being selected. Then Right-Click anywhere inside the selection and choose Insert. This then creates 6 empty columns from E to J, and moves the other stuff to the right so nothing is lost. In these 6 columns is where we are going to do some calculations on the data. So we are now going to get the equations from the FltGeomMetricUnitsTemplate file and copy and then paste into the new spreadsheet. So from FltGeomMetricUnitsTemplate select from E1 upper left to J12 lower right so that a rectangle of 12 cells down and 6 cells across are selected. Then Copy (Ctrl-C). Then go to the 906783SanJoseToBerkeleyFlt spreadsheet file and select cell E1 to define the upper left of where to Paste. Then Paste (Ctrl-V). At this point the equations need to be filled down to the extent of the data. Select cell E12 which defines the upper left. Scroll down to the very bottom of the data, in this case row 3416. Shift-Click on cell J3416. This will result in all cells bounded by E12 on the upper left to J3416 on the lower right to be selected. Then do a Fill Down (Ctrl-D). This then results in the equations being pasted all the way down so we get the calculations done that we wanted for the entire extent of the data. Two values can be read off of the spreadsheet at this point. If you go to cell G3416 the total distance of the trip according to flat earth interpretation is 96.2 km and to cell I3416 the average speed is 83.1 km/h also according to flat earth theory. Next we will create a plot of speed versus time. Column J is speed smoothed over several data points and is what I will use because it minimizes the natural scatter in the data for a better looking plot. If you want to use the point to point speed just use column H for speed instead. So select from cell B12 to B3416. The way I like to do this is first select cell B12, then scroll all the way down and shift-click on cell B3416. Next we want to add to the selection cells J12 to J3416. The way I like to do this is first Ctrl-click on cell J12 and then scroll down and shift-click on cell J3416. Now that we have selected two separate columns, one defined by cells B12 to B3416, and the other defined by cells J12 to J3416, we can create a plot of this speed versus time data. So go to Insert, select Scatter, and then Scatter with straight lines is the one I like. This puts the plot in front of the spreadsheet table. I like to make it separate with its own tab. So right click in the right area of the plot and chose Move. Then click the button and accept the default name of Chart1 or give it your own name. I like to call it SpeedVsTimeSm, for speed versus time smoothed. This then is the speed versus time plot based on the flat earth interpretation of the data. This will eventually be compared with the equivalent plot based on the spherical earth interpretation of the data. What we will find is that the intervals where the speed was held constant with cruise control show up clearly and distinctly constant on the spherical earth interpretation, but with much variability on the flat earth interpretation.

So basically to get the equivalent calculations for the spherical earth surface model, repeat everything above, but instead using SphGeomMetricUnitsTemplate and working on file 906783SanJoseToBerkeleySph.

Once you do this you will get the results that I have summarized below.

Trip from San Jose to Berkeley

91.1 km (56.6 miles) by odometer

Duration by watch 1:10

Duration Start to Stop GPS 1:09:28

90.6 km 78.3 km/h ave speed 131 km/h top speed by GPS

90.67 km 78.32 km/h ave speed confirmed by calculations in Sph Excel spreadsheet

Speed versus Time plot for spherical model shows clear agreement with speedometer data

Speed versus Time plot for flat model shows large deviations from speedometer data

96.2 km 83.1 km/h ave speed by calculations in Flt Excel spreadsheet Inconsistent with odometer data

Spherical Earth model: Affirmed

Flat Earth model: Large deviations from reality

If I am able to display the Speed versus Time graphs I will show them here. If not they can be seen at the Scribd links.

Speed versus Time according to Flat theory

Speed versus Time according to Flat theory

Speed versus Time according to Spherical theory

Speed versus Time according to Spherical theory

I have made these files available to the public through my Scribd account.

20171126171339-38065-data    Text file

20171126171339-38065-data    Text file

906783SanJoseToBerkeley           Excel file

906783SanJoseToBerkeley           Excel file

906783SanJoseToBerkeleyFlt        Excel file

906783SanJoseToBerkeleyFlt        Excel file

906783SanJoseToBerkeleySph       Excel file

906783SanJoseToBerkeleySph       Excel file

FltGeomMetricUnitsTemplate         Excel file

FltGeomMetricUnitsTemplate         Excel file

SphGeomMetricUnitsTemplate         Excel file

SphGeomMetricUnitsTemplate        Excel file

Anybody should be able to see the files by just going to the links. The graphs of Speed versus Time for both the spherical and flat cases should be able to be seen this way. To download the files you need a Scribd account, and a regular account should be free to set up.

I was not able to make the KML file Track-171126-105544 available through Scribd because it is not a supported file type.

I encourage people all over the world to take their own data and process it in this manner and report their results. Let me know if you have any questions. Comments are welcome. Thank you.

Gobsmacked by Flat Earth Theory – Reflections upon just 2 months of flat earth debunking


I have been actively engaged in debunking flat earth theory arguments for the last couple of months. At this point, we are only 3 days away from the Flat Earth International Conference https://fe2017.com/  FEIC 2017 to be held in Raleigh North Carolina. The precise location is 201 Harrison Oaks Blvd, Cary, NC at 35.833, -78.772 on the spherical earth map but at a TBD (to be determined) location on the flat earth map. And a trivial point of curiosity is that it happens to be exactly 43.2 miles or 66.6 km, sorry just kidding, 69.5 km (great-circle distance) from Hightowers, North Carolina (36.327, -79.244 on the spherical earth map).


Hightowers North Carolina

Are we really on the path to the total destruction of the globular earth as so many have come to know and love for so long? In just a few days? I offer some reflections. But first,


Two nights ago I was doing some calculations on this flat earth theory stuff, and I was gob-smacked by the results I got. It showed how obviously ridiculous some of the claims of the flat earth advocates have been. So I have got to share that with you. I am sure I am not the first to have discovered this, but since I had never actually done these exact calculations before, I was surprised to discover how far off from reality some major flat earth promulgations have been. I was gobsmacked.


I discovered that on the equinox on the flat earth model, from anywhere on the equator the sun will rise exactly in the north-east, and at sunrise it will appear at an angle of 35 degrees up from the horizontal. (On the spherical earth in this case the sun rises exactly east and on the horizon.) Furthermore, from either the north pole or the southern ring the sun will appear at an angle of 45 degrees up from the horizontal. (This is clearly not what is seen from the poles on the spherical earth.) Again, I was gobsmacked. Later in this post I will present the details of how these things were determined, after I give my reflections on my two months of opposition to the flat earth movement, the immovable BM that just won’t flush.


When I first started listening to the current flat earth advocacy movement about one and one half years ago, I have to admit that I was taken in by some of the arguments, even though there were some arguments that seemed immediately and clearly false to me (like the gravity is just buoyancy and density argument), and since I have been a student of conspiracy theories for many years, and many advocating this flat earth theory were also students of conspiracy theories with whom I would probably agree on many things, I kind of wanted the flat earth theory to be true, and was kind of rooting for them at first.

But once I started to do some of my own really serious research a little over two months ago and discovered that there were some truly fatal problems with flat earth theory as it was being promulgated, and especially when I discovered that literalist Bible believing Christians appeared to be a strong force behind this current flat earth movement


Celebrate Truth

I felt compelled that I had to speak out, so I started my blog.

I have concentrated upon doing my own research and coming to my own conclusions rather than taking in a lot of information from others who have been working on debunking flat earth theory for quite some time. I have had some limited communication with other flat earth debunkers, but not much. I am sure that probably most if not all of the conclusions I have come to, are in agreement with these others, as they should be, as math and science and logic form a system that has been proven over hundreds of years to be quite consistent with itself and reality.

So at this point, I have not refuted every single flat earth argument that has been proposed. It is kind of like playing wack-a-mole. If I ever find that I discover a flat earth argument that I either agree with or am not able to refute, I will certainly report my findings, as any good and honest scientist should do.

So here are some of the things I have learned from my serious involvement in the flat earth theory controversy over the last couple of months.

Flat earth advocates have a lot of arguments that seem to make some sense on the surface.

When you refute them, they do not answer back, or if they do it is not in a substantive manner, but instead involves throwing out vague arguments and/or insults.

Most of the time when I have made polite but substantive refutations on flat earther Youtube channels, I have found that my comments are not allowed.

When you point out to flat earth advocates problems with the azimuthal equidistant map that they for the most part have been vigorously using to promulgate their flat earth theory, the more knowledgeable ones will say that they know there are problems with that map, and they are still working on getting an accurate flat earth map.

Well I am sorry, but many if not most of their arguments that they have been putting out to justify flat earth theory have depended upon that map and their acceptance of it. If they now say that there are problems with the map that they are still working on solving, it is really like they are saying that most if not all of their previous arguments have been spurious, but “we are still committed to a flat earth as the Bible clearly teaches us, so please continue listening to us and be patient, and eventually we will prove that the earth really is flat, scientifically.”

And how flat is the flat earth? At least those in the spherical earth camp can tell you how spherical the spherical earth is. It is very close to a perfect sphere, but not quite. It is so close to a perfect sphere that assuming it is a perfect sphere for calculational purposes is plenty accurate for most purposes.


World Geodetic System WGS84

Have those in the flat earth movement not been deceptively raising false expectations in their followers in this flat earth concept for far too long? Have they no shame? How much money are people making off of this movement? Is it a money making scam preying on the gullible, mathematically and scientifically illiterate, and especially on the conspiracy minded population?

I have simply gotten to the point where I will seldom watch flat earther videos anymore. They simply do not deliver what they promise, so for the most part they are click bait.

I have debunked, rockets cannot work in space, the oceans would have been sucked into space, gravity is just buoyancy and density, and you cannot possibly see the planet Mercury from the earth according to spherical earth and solar system theory.

I have heard some of the most ridiculous arguments from flat earth advocates. Like they have special airline planes in the southern hemisphere that can fly 900 miles per hour, and that there is no such thing as a sound barrier.


If one discovers that they have been deceived by someone, I think it is normal to feel some anger toward those who did the deceiving. So to the extent that I bought into some of the flat earth arguments, bought and read some of the books, and spent a lot of time watching their videos, I do have some anger towards these people. The ones who I am the most upset with are those who are knowingly peddling information that they know to be false, for some reason, whether it is for making money off of gullible and scientifically illiterate people, or whether they are paid government agents seeking to infiltrate and destroy legitimate truth movements and students of real conspiracies. For those who have been taken in and have become real believers that the earth is flat I have more sympathy for, for we are all as human beings subject to error and being deceived.

Maybe one of the first things that should be announced at the flat earth conference is an apology for all of the false arguments that they have previously been pushing so hard, but now, finally, are having to abandon, because they just don’t add up.

I have a certain amount of anger toward Christian preachers who have been preaching the “turn or burn” gospel which I grew up hearing and have since after many years of study come to not believe. I realize that probably a large portion of these are people who mean well and truly believe what they are teaching is the truth. But they have been guilty of the sin of claiming to be sure about something that no one could possibly be sure about, and they should have known better, but again, this is what deception does to people.

Flat earth advocates are guilty of a worse sin in that they are claiming to be sure about something that can and has been proven to be false. I feel that they are simultaneously committing blasphemy against God and science, if that is possible.


Can we imagine the hatching of a plan deep in the bowels of the intelligence agencies prior to the recent resurrection of the flat earth movement? (I say resurrected because there was a flat earth movement 150 years ago uncannily similar to the movement of today as documented in the book “Flat Earth: The History of An Infamous Idea” by historian Christine Garwood.) My review of her book on Amazon is here


Hightower review of “Flat Earth: The History of An Infamous Idea”

Could the hatching of such a plan have possibly been expressed something like this. “We have convinced most people that we went to the moon. We have convinced most people that Lee Harvey Oswald was the lone nut assassin of JFK, that 9-11 was a conspiracy of Osama Bin Laden and 19 Arab hijackers and a few more, and countless other cover stories for the gullible masses for operations that we actually planned and carried out. Now we are going to convince a large portion of people that the earth is flat, and the people who for the most part we will convince of this are students of conspiracy theories who have seen through so many of our other lies, such as the moon landings that we faked. Do you believe we can do this? No way. OK, you just watch us.” Could NASA actually be in favor of the flat earth movement because it will somehow help them maintain the lie that we actually went to the moon, once the flat earth movement, that places so much emphasis on the moon landings having been faked, crashes and burns?


The Guardian article on Flat Earth Believers from 2016


Man may have made some wrong turns in philosophy, science, religion, and theology, and other areas, but that does not nullify large portions of these areas of study that have a large portion of truth in them. Some flat earthers say that because NASA faked the moon landings we know that the entire space program is fake. I am sorry, but this is not sound logic. This would be like saying that because our government lied to us about the JFK assassination, that they lie to us about everything. They lie to us about a lot, but not everything.


So I was looking into comparing spherical earth theory to flat earth theory for the equinox, that we just had on September 23, 2017.

And to make it simple I decided to look at this from the standpoint of an observer at the equator. On the equinox, if you are anywhere on the equator, the sun will rise exactly in the east, at solar noon it will be exactly overhead, and it will set exactly in the west. You can view this as either the sun stationary and the earth rotating once every 24 hours, or as the earth stationary and the sun going around the earth once every 24 hours. Geometrically it makes no difference how you view it. So this means that from your point of view on the equator with the sun directly overhead at solar noon, you will see the sun moving or going around at an angular rate of 360 degrees per 24 hours, which works out to 1 degree per every 4 minutes or 0.25 degrees per minute.

Now in order to compare this to what the flat earth model would dictate, I will make it so the sun will be directly overhead at solar noon at every point on the equator. This means that the sun is circling over the flat disk shaped earth (with the north pole at the center and the equator 6218 miles from the north pole) exactly over the equator and making one complete circuit every 24 hours.

The circumference around the equator of the flat earth is 39,071 miles. The sun is therefore traveling at a speed of 39,071/(24*60) = 27.1 miles per minute. Equating angular rate of sun movement between spherical and flat models, for they must be the same because this is what an observer on the earth sees, gives this equation 0.25*(PI/180) = 27.1/As where As is the altitude of the sun on the flat earth model. Solving for As gives an altitude of the sun of 6218 miles. So on the flat earth from the observer at a point on the equator, if they go back in time 6 hours before solar noon, the sun will be seen rising in exactly the north-east direction. So right here we see that the flat earth model is far removed from the reality of what one actually observes from the equator on the equinox, that the sun rises in exactly the east direction. Since the sun is at the same altitude as the distance from the north pole to the equator, an observer at the north pole would see the sun at an angle of 45 degrees from the horizontal, and an observer at the south pole (southern ring for flat earth model) would also see the sun at the same angle of 45 degrees from the horizontal, both of these predicted observations of the flat earth model being very far removed from reality.

The hypotenuse of the right triangle with two equal sides of 6218 miles is 8794 miles. This means that the equatorial observer will see the sun rising in exactly the north-east direction at an angle of arctan (6218/8794) = 35.3 degrees up from the horizontal. The hypotenuse of this right triangle is calculated to be 10,770 miles, so this would be the distance from the equatorial observer to the sun when it is rising. This again demonstrates how flat earth theory predictions are very far from reality.


T Mark Hightower turned down as FEIC speaker but gives “thumbs up” Flat Earth A$$hole

Four days ago I felt compelled to make an offer to speak at the upcoming Flat Earth International Conference in Raleigh North Carolina on November 9-10, 2017. The text of the email I sent making this offer is pasted below. Since 4 days have elapsed and the only response I have gotten was a negative response from one of the speakers who was cc’d on my email, it seems clear that they are not interested in having me speak.

After I sent the email below, a friend of mine referred me to a Youtube video by Flat Earth A$$hole, published October 25, 2017, entitled “The End of the FAKE Flat Earth.”

Flat Earth A$$hole Youtube video

I had heard of this guy, but had never watched any of his videos before. So I watched the whole thing, even though it was one hour and 5 minutes long, so that I could be prepared to intelligently discuss it with my friend. A major point of his video is showing that the azimuthal equidistant map in the shape of a circular disk with the sun and moon circling over it, which has so prominently been promulgated by the flat earth movement as their flat earth map and model, is simply not consistent with verifiable data that all of us on the earth have access to and can see for ourselves. His video has a lot of vulgar language, but I gave it a “thumbs up” because I definitely agree with his arguments against the azimuthal equidistant map as a flat earth map. Amazingly, he is still holding on to his view that the earth is definitely flat. This is how he describes this video of his.

“If this video resonates as truth with you please share the video on any and all social media platforms. Feel free to mirror this video on YouTube or wherever else you want to. The AE map is done and the time for a Boycott of that map and circle sun model is now!”

My offer to speak at FEIC is pasted below

October 31, 2017

To: Flat Earth International Conference 2017 organizers, Mr. and Mrs. Robbie Davidson

Cc: Mr. and Mrs. Bob Knodel, Mr. Mark Sargent, Mr. David Weiss, Mr. Rob Skiba

Dear Mr. and Mrs. Robbie Davidson,

I would like to offer to present my recent ground breaking flat earth theory research findings at the upcoming Flat Earth International Conference to be held in Raleigh NC on November 9-10, 2017.

Although there is some humor and satire in some of my work, I am serious about making this offer, and research conclusions I have reached are based on applying sound logic and math to some pretty commonly promulgated tenets of current flat earth theory. We should not be afraid to take Flat Earth Theory and Science wherever it leads us.

I think that my views as a retired NASA engineer, a student of conspiracy theories, and a devout Christian Universalist, will offer to your audience both scientific and religious perspectives that they might otherwise be missing. This would have the potential to be comforting to so many wrapped up in endless conspiracy theories with so many fears: the future, Satan and demons, nephilim giants, the wrath of God, and an endless punishment in hell if they don’t have the right beliefs.

I think you can see by my recent blog posts referenced below that I am a serious student and researcher of flat earth theory and quite capable of making new discoveries in applying flat earth theory to take it where it has never been before.



(Same posts are at both blog sites.)

Here are two examples of recent blog post titles that show original research and conclusions that to my knowledge have not yet been discovered and reported on within the flat earth theory and science research community.

Former NASA engineer makes major Flat Earth Theory discovery today October 17, 2017

Flat Earth Tri-Location – Former NASA engineer presents rigorous derivation of previously reported discovery

Even in the next few days I have planned some ground breaking experiments that I am really excited about and hope to have the results ready to present at the upcoming Flat Earth International Conference, if I might be so privileged to do so.

I eagerly await hearing from you and excitedly anticipate the prospect of possibly being able to present at the Flat Earth International Conference 2017.

Thank you.

In the Love of God and Jesus Christ which Never Fails,


T Mark Hightower